How real is the threat of social unrest from China’s army of unemployed?

By Tom Miller and Arthur Kroeber

A couple of months ago, a number of excitable reports predicted that mass lay-offs in China’s export heartlands could spell social chaos. Twenty million angry migrant workers had lost their jobs and revolt was in the air, we were told.

So just how bad is the labour situation? Not nearly as bad as many people feared.

According to a recent survey of 68,000 migrant households in 31 provinces by the National Bureau of Statistics, 23m of 140m migrant workers failed to find jobs after this year’s lunar New Year in January. While 11m returned to the cities to look for work after the holiday, 12m stayed at home.

Since then, reports from individual provinces suggest that many of those workers have also returned to the factories and building sites.

In Guangdong province – a major export region that is home to around 20m migrant workers – the local government estimates that of the 10m migrant workers who went home for the lunar New Year, 9.5m have returned to the province. Of these, about 5 per cent (or 460,000 people) had not found jobs. As the FT’s South China correspondent Tom Mitchell pointed out, in the context of a province with a total population of 110m, half a million migrants is a sizeable but manageable army of unemployed.

Evidence from Henan province, one of the biggest sources of migrant labour in the country, confirms this trend. Many more migrants stayed at home after the New Year than in past years, but most have since returned to work or found local employment.

According to one survey of migrants in Xinyang, a prefecture-level city in southern Henan, 500,000 of the 650,000 migrants who returned home for the holiday had left again by mid-February. Of the 150,000 who remained, 50,000 found local work, leaving 100,000 – or 4 per cent of the total 2.7m area migrants – temporarily unemployed.

Aside from some localised protests directed at a handful of individual factories, laid-off workers have been far busier finding new jobs than venting their rage. This is unsurprising: migrants working in export factories and construction sites are accustomed to finding work where they can get it and many have been laid off before. Chinese migrant labourers are among the most flexible in the world.

Past experience also suggests that temporary economic hardship may provoke isolated protests but is unlikely to cause widespread social or political tensions. Between 1995 and 2005, China’s state enterprises shed 50m jobs. The laid-off workers lost what they had believed were jobs for life, which also provided them with food, education, health care and pensions. They had no skills and were effectively unemployable elsewhere.

Inevitably there were riots, particularly in the hard-hit northeast – but these were aimed at specific factories rather than the government or political system in general. And there was no serious, long-term damage done to China’s social fabric.

This is not to make light of the current situation: millions of vulnerable migrants have lost their jobs and times are tough. But the resilience of China’s workers should not be underestimated, and fears of social unrest caused by unemployed migrants have been greatly exaggerated.

Dragonbeat is no longer updated but it remains open as an archive.

Readers of the Dragonbeat blog can now go to to read the new Dragonbeat weekly column for insightful commentary and analysis on China.