Inflation

The Bank of England’s latest Inflation Report was certainly a downbeat document. Mervyn King, Bank governor, said there are “difficult times ahead”, because the economy is still undergoing a slow adjustment to the impact of the financial crisis. By reducing its GDP growth forecasts while simultaneously increasing its inflation projections, the Bank has signalled that it believes the UK is now facing a series of supply side problems – and those are always the most difficult for any central bank to handle. Read more

Normally, I write a summary of the week’s major economic events on a Sunday morning. This week I am going to leave the heart-rending events in Japan to be covered by the news teams, and instead focus on two other developments which have important ramifications for the global economy – the slowdown in China, which is becoming increasingly accepted by a previously sceptical economics profession; and the moderately promising deal on sovereign debt which was announced by EU leaders in the early hours of Saturday morning. Read more

The era in which central bankers could apparently do no wrong ended emphatically in 2008. Since then, they have attracted plenty of criticism as they have adopted a succession of unconventional policies to stabilise the world economy and financial system. Read more

Ben Bernanke’s speech in Boston on Friday seems to have disappointed those who were expecting him to announce concrete measures to restart quantitative easing, but we already knew from the last set of FOMC minutes that the groundwork for such an announcement had not been undertaken. That announcement will come after the committee’s next meeting on November 2nd and 3rd. Nevertheless, Mr Bernanke has nailed his colours to the mast, even more clearly than he has done in recent speeches. This is a Fed Chairman who is very dissatisfied with the depressed state of the US economy, and who is not afraid to say so. Read more

The minutes of the September meeting of the FOMC, published yesterday, suggest that the Fed is considering how to communicate its policy message more clearly to the markets.  Read more

The Federal Reserve broke a taboo yesterday when it said quite baldly that inflation in the US is now below the level “consistent with its mandate”. In other words, it is too low. This is a very big statement for any central banker to make, since the greatest feather in their collective cap is that they successfully combated inflation after the 1970s debacle.  Read more

Ben Bernanke’s speech at Jackson Hole on Friday will reportedly discuss the pros and cons of further monetary easing in the US. This debate has suddenly taken on a new sense of urgency, because the weakening in US economic data seems to have accelerated quite markedly during August.  Read more

The battle to avoid deflation in the developed world could prove to be a long one, with twists and turns which could last for many years. In July, the core CPI data in the eurozone were somewhat firmer than expected, as were the core PPI data in the US. This has led some economists to suggest that underlying price pressures are beginning to rise again, and that the deflation scare is over. Would that that were true. Some interesting new evidence from the IMF suggests that while outright deflation might be avoided, at least for a time, the developed economies could soon get stuck in a kind of limbo land, with inflation remaining unhealthily close to zero for a very long period. Read more