It’s not about central banks, but it has the potential to affect the risk profile of every country in Europe.

Kazakhstan is considering a new pipeline route to bring its growing oil surplus to Europe, via Georgia and Armenia, a route that was damaged during the 2008 Russian-Georgian conflict. This would reduce Kazakh dependence on Russian pipelines. A surge of oil production is expected from 2012 when the Kashagan oilfield comes onstream in the Caspian sea – doubling Kazakh output to 3m barrels per day. Read more