monetary policy

Michael Steen

Not the ECB (Getty)

The Bundesbank has weighed in on what forward guidance means for the European Central Bank and if you want the short version it boils down to: we have not forgotten about inflation.

The ECB pledged in July to keep interest rates at or below current levels “for an extended period of time,” which, as we’ve noted before has caused some confusion as to what precisely it means.

According to Germany’s central bank, that promise does not actually mean that interest rates cannot rise or that they will necessarily remain low for a long time. As it writes in its latest monthly report:

The decisive point in correctly interpreting this statement is that it is conditional on the unchanged obligation of the Eurosystem [the ECB and the eurozone’s 17 national central banks] towards its mandate of maintaining price stability (which means, operationally, medium term inflation that is below, but close to 2 per cent)… It follows that the ECB’s governing council has not bound itself. If higher price pressures become apparent in future compared to those expected now, forward guidance in no way rules out a rise in interest rates.

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Michael Steen

Graffiti outside the ECB's future headquarters. (Getty)

Could the European Central Bank be learning a thing or two about managing the message? Ahead of Thursday’s interest rate-setting meeting, when policymakers will want to do nothing more than say “we’re holding steady”, it looks like the bank may come up with an eye-catching announcement to give everyone something to write about.

That something is the long-running and vexed question of why the bank that loves to tell you how transparent it is (well, at certain times, once you’ve cleared security and as long as you understand no quotes should be used from this conversation) keeps the minutes of its governing council meetings secret for 30 years. The practice makes it an outlier – the Federal Reserve, Bank of England and Bank of Japan all publish minutes of their monetary policy meetings within a month of the meeting that they cover. Read more

Robin Harding

The paper at this year’s US Monetary Policy Forum – where market economists get to present to central bankers – is called “Crunch Time: Fiscal Crisis and the Role of Monetary Policy“. It shows a new wrinkle on US fiscal problems: if there is any kind of debt sustainability crisis it could make the Fed’s exit from easy monetary policy a whole lot more painful.

This is the money chart. Black is the baseline for Fed profit and loss in the coming years. Red is what happens if a fiscal crunch pushes up long-term bond yields (and hence causes losses for the Fed on its portfolio). Read more

Tom Burgis

Mark Carney, the incoming governor of the Bank of England, was grilled by MPs and his ECB counterpart Mario Draghi faced awkward questions. By Tom Burgis, Ben Fenton and Lina Saigol in London with contributions from FT correspondents. All times are GMT.  

Bank of England©Getty

Excessive deference and hierarchy are damaging the Bank of England’s effectiveness, according to three independent reviews that criticise the central bank’s culture.

The reviews into operations during the financial crisis found that officials in Threadneedle Street had learnt “rapidly” and handled the crisis “effectively”, but were also critical of the cental bank’s governance culture.

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Claire Jones

Charlie Bean’s speech on Wednesday evening was grim, even by central bankers’ standards.

Mr Bean is the Bank’s deputy governor with responsibility for monetary policy. But he doesn’t seem to think that particular policy strand can do much good. Either now, or in preventing the next bubble.

Not only did Mr Bean echo the governor’s warnings over the effectiveness (or lack thereof) of more quantitative easing in the current climate, he is also sceptical that monetary policy can curb the build-up of credit bubbles. Read more

Michael Steen

According to the Maradona theory of monetary policy, as outlined by Sir Mervyn King, governor of the Bank of England, a central bank can let expectations that it will act – rather than actual action – do the work for it.

The theory is being tested right now by Mario Draghi, president of the European Central Bank, as his controversial “outright monetary transactions” bond-buying programme is forced to sit on the benches until the prime candidate for help, Spain, applies to the EU’s bailout fund.

As a quick reminder, the Maradona theory refers to the 1986 World Cup quarter final between England and Argentina. Diego Maradona scored a celebrated goal with a run from near the halfway line in which he beat five England players by, er, running in a straight line. Read more

Claire Jones

Because monetary policy acts with a lag, it has to rely on forecasts.

However, as the Bank of England’s attempts at prediction have illustrated, central banks’ forecasts, and indeed those of most economists, tend to be pretty dire.

This is what Svante Öberg, first deputy governor of Sweden’s Riksbank, refers to in a speech out today as the “Catch-22 of monetary policy.” So what’s a central banker to do?  Read more

Claire Jones

Sir Mervyn King. Image by Getty.

Sir Mervyn King. Image by Getty.

Welcome to our live blog on Sir Mervyn King’s appearance at the Treasury select committee.

The governor has been called before the committee to field questions on the Monetary Policy Committee’s latest inflation report, which came out earlier this month.

Reporting by Claire Jones. All times are GMT.

17.16 This live blog is now closed.

17.14 Given that the hearing was supposed to be about the MPC’s inflation report, it was ironic that the governor ended up revealing more about what the FPC is likely to recommend in the financial stability report later this week. Read more

Claire Jones

Monetary policy is no longer shrouded in mystery; the curtain has been pulled back on the great and powerful Federal Reserve to reveal Ben Bernanke.

That central bankers now bother to tell us what interest rate they are targeting owes much to a belief that more transparency affords them greater influence on markets’ and the public’s expectations, which in turn makes monetary policy more effective in affecting demand.

But how much of an impact do expectations about policy actually have on the economy? Today’s Nobel Prize has been awarded to two economists – Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims – that have done much to answer this question.  Read more