Urban planning in the later 19th and 20th centuries could be considered a story of two utopias. The first was the garden city movement, which was opposed to urban sprawl, sceptical of central government, fond of local democracy and encouraging of private capital. The second was the modernism of some post-war planners, which favoured large and often tall estates in the heart of cities, or New Towns just outside, both funded by central government. This is a crude distinction but a genuine one, and its story is told well by David Kynaston in Austerity Britain, among other books. In general, conservatives are more likely to become misty-eyed about tales of Letchworth and Weleyn Garden Cities, while those on the left extol the virtues of new towns such as Milton Keynes. Read more
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