Closed Margaret Thatcher dies, 87

Lady Thatcher, Conservative prime minister from 1979 to 1990, has died following a stroke. She was Britain’s first and only female prime minister and her economic and political legacy has resounded across the world. FT reporters Lina Saigol and Hannah Kuchler follow the global reaction.

British MPs and politicians and businessmen took to Twitter Monday to express their grief and share their personal experiences over the death of Margaret Thatcher.

“She was a titan in British politics. I believe she saved our country,” tweeted Michael Howard, leader of the Conservative Party between 2003 and 2005.

Leader of UKIP Nigel Farage said Mrs Thatcher had been a great inspiration to him personally. “Whether you loved her or hated her nobody could deny that she was a great patriot, who believed passionately in this country and her people. A towering figure in recent British and political history has passed from the stage. Our thoughts and prayers are with her family,” Mr Farage said.

David Davis, said Mrs Thatcher was central to the huge transformation of the whole world that took place after the fall of the Soviet Union. “Millions of people in Britain and around the world owe her a debt of gratitude for their freedom and their quality of life, which was made possible by her courageous commitment to the principles of individual freedom and responsibility. Her passing is a very sad event and she will be greatly missed.”

Lord Sugar said Mrs Thatcher had “created opportunity for anyone to succeed in the UK.”

Interesting bit of nostalgia: 1979 polls on “Who would make best PM?”

Lord Tebbit of Chingford who was a senior cabinet minister in Margaret Thatcher’s government:

It is a sadness that such an immense figure of the late 20th century should have gone – but perhaps a merciful release for her, from a life which must have been increasingly empty in recent years. She did indeed change Britain for the better – would that there was somebody like her to lead us again now!

John Cridland, director general of the employers’ organisation the CBI, said the Baroness gave the UK a generation of economic growth.

“Baroness Thatcher’s leadership took the UK out of the economic relegation zone and into the first division. What Baroness Thatcher did to reshape the British economy gave us a generation of growth,” he said.

The Eastern Europeans are coming out in full force.

Ukrainian MP Vyacheslav Kyrylenko via the BBC:

“Margaret Thatcher has passed away… Together with Ronald Reagan, she came to represent a whole era of world history – the era of the fall of the Iron Curtain.”

Whilst Radoslaw Sikorski, minister of foreign affairs for Poland said:

Mrs Thatcher had “stood up for captive nations” and helped the free world win the Cold War.

Prime Minister David Cameron

“She didn’t just lead our country; she saved our country.”

Tributes have been pouring in from around the world.

Henry Kissinger, former US secretary of state, said she was a leader of strong convictions and a warm-hearted personality.

Jose Manuel Barroso, European Commission president, conveyed his deepest regrets to the UK government and the British people.

She was without doubt a great stateswoman, the first female Prime Minister of her country, and a circumspect yet engaged player in the European Union. She will be remembered for both her contributions to and her reserves about our common project. She signed the Single European Act and helped bring about the single market. She was a leading player in bringing into the European family the Central and Eastern European countries which were formerly behind the Iron Curtain. As you remember, Britain under Mrs Thatcher’s leadership was very supportive of the enlargement of the European Union.

Her legacy has done much to shape the United Kingdom as we know it today, including the special role of the United Kingdom in the European Union that endures to this day.

In charge:

The Labour leader sent his deep condolences to Lady Thatcher’s family. Ed Miliband said she would be “remembered as a unique figure”, respected even by her opponents.

She reshaped the politics of a whole generation. She was Britain’s first woman Prime Minister. She moved the centre ground of British politics and was a huge figure on the world stage.

The Labour Party disagreed with much of what she did and she will always remain a controversial figure. But we can disagree and also greatly respect her political achievements and her personal strength.

She also defined the politics of the 1980s. David Cameron, Nick Clegg and I all grew up in a politics shaped by Lady Thatcher. We took different paths but with her as the crucial figure of that era.

Sir John Major – who took over from Lady Thatcher in 1990, said she was a
“true force of nature”.

“Her reforms of the economy, trades union law, and her recovery of the Falkland Islands elevated her above normal politics, and may not have been achieved under any other leader. Her outstanding characteristics will always be remembered by those who worked closely with her – courage and determination in politics, and humanity and generosity of spirit in private.”

Another former British prime minister inspired by Thatcher’s legacy has also praised her. Tony Blair, who led the UK from 1997 to 2007, said she was a “towering political figure” with a vast global impact.

“Very few leaders get to change not only the political landscape of their country but of the world. Margaret was such a leader.

And some of the changes she made in Britain were, in certain respects at least, retained by the 1997 Labour Government, and came to be implemented by governments around the world.”

Japan’s Abe says Lady Thatcher was great leader, shares sadness with Britons”

Mikhail Gorbachev, the former leader of the Soviet Union who presided over the fall of the Iron Curtain, says Lady Thatcher was a great politician, who will go down in history.
We take you back to the famous “I like Mr Gorbachev. We can do business together” quote.

From Michael Steen, an FT correspondent in Germany:

In Berlin, Guido Westerwelle, Germany’s foreign minister, said Lady Thatcher was a great politician who left her mark on the UK, Europe and the world. “She leaves behind a great legacy for the history of Europe and the world,” said Mr Westerwelle, who belongs to the liberal FDP party that rules in coalition with Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats. “We look at her life’s work with admiration.”

Quartz has this on how Lady Thatcher changed Iraq, the Soviet Union and the oil industry

Margaret Thatcher was the first British prime minister to visit Israel, when she went in 1986. Benjamin Netanyahu, Israeli prime minister, sent his condolences to her family and the whole of the UK and said she was a “staunch friend of Israel and the Jewish people”.

“She was truly a great leader, a woman of principle, of determination, of conviction, of strength; a woman of greatness… She inspired a generation of political leaders.”

Kiran Stacey in the FT’s parly team sends details of the funeral:

This will be a “ceremonial funeral”, which differs from a state funeral in name only – state funerals are only accorded to sovereigns. The Queen Mother and Lady Diana both had ceremonial funerals. The government and the Thatcher estate will share the costs, but neither are saying what they are likely to be – although the public costs will be released after the event.

On the day of the funeral, the coffin will be taken by hearse from St Mary Undercroft, a chapel in the Palace of Westminster, to St Clement Danes, the RAF church on the Strand. At St Clement Danes, the coffin will be transferred to a gun carriage and drawn by the Kings Troop Royal Artillery to St Pauls. The route will be lined with personnel from all three armed services and she will be met by a guard of honour. The steps to the church will be lined with armed service personel and Chelsea pensioners. Instead of gifts, the family is asking for donations to the Chelsea pensioners.

There will be a private cremation.

The union jack has been lowered at the Houses of Parliament

Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams isn’t shedding many tears. He’s released this statement:

Margaret Thatcher did great hurt to the Irish and British people during her time as British Prime Minister.

Working class communities were devastated in Britain because of her policies.

Her role in international affairs was equally belligerent whether in support of the Chilean dictator Pinochet, her opposition to sanctions against apartheid South Africa; and her support for the Khmer Rouge.

Here in Ireland her espousal of old draconian militaristic policies prolonged the war and caused great suffering. She embraced censorship, collusion and the killing of citizens by covert operations, including the targeting of solicitors like Pat Finucane, alongside more open military operations and refused to recognise the rights of citizens to vote for parties of their choice.

Her failed efforts to criminalise the republican struggle and the political prisoners is part of her legacy.

It should be noted that in complete contradiction of her public posturing, she authorised a back channel of communications with the Sinn Féin leadership but failed to act on the logic of this.

Unfortunately she was faced with weak Irish governments who failed to oppose her securocrat agenda or to enlist international support in defence of citizens in the north.

Margaret Thatcher will be especially remembered for her shameful role during the epic hunger strikes of 1980 and ’81.

Her Irish policy failed miserably.

Ulster Unionist Party leader Mike Nesbitt:

“Whilst we in the Ulster Unionist Party would not have agreed with her on everything, particularly the Anglo-Irish Agreement, Northern Ireland has reason to be eternally grateful for her stance against terrorism, not least during the hunger-strikes when Northern Ireland was on the edge of something catastrophic.”

Lady Thatcher famously took on the miners and won. David Hopper, general secretary of the Durham Miners’ Association, said he had little sympathy after her death. “She destroyed our community, our villages and our people,” he said.

“It’s a great day for all the miners, I imagine we will have a counter demonstration when they have her funeral.

“Our children have got no jobs and the community is full of problems. There’s no work and no money and it’s very sad the legacy she has left behind.”

And from the US, former US President George W Bush has paid tribute saying she was an “inspirational leader” and a “great example of strength and character.”

Laura and I are saddened by the death of Baroness Margaret Thatcher. She was an inspirational leader who stood on principle and guided her nation with confidence and clarity.

Prime Minister Thatcher is a great example of strength and character, and a great ally who strengthened the special relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States.

Laura and I join the people of Great Britain in remembering the life and leadership of this strong woman and friend.

Lady Thatcher led the UK to war in the Falklands after Argentina invaded the islands in the South Atlantic in April 1982.

The Falklands Islands government said she would be remembered forever for her “decisiveness” in sending a task force.

Our sincere gratitude was demonstrated in 1983 when she was granted the Freedom of the Falkland Islands. Her friendship and support will be sorely missed, and we will always be thankful for all that she did for us. The thoughts and deepest sympathies of all Falkland Islanders are with her family and friends at this sad time.

The National Archives released the Falklands files at the end of last year. Here is an interactive exploring the documents.

John Boehner, the US speaker of the house, called Lady Thatcher “the greatest peacetime prime minister in British history”. He said Americans would always admire her loyalty to President Ronald Reagan.

“Margaret Thatcher, a grocer’s daughter, stared down elites, union bosses, and communists to win three consecutive elections, establish conservative principles in Western Europe, and bring down the Iron Curtain.

“There was no secret to her values – hard work and personal responsibility – and no nonsense at all in her leadership. She once said, ‘Defeat? I do not recognize the meaning of the word.’ Now this lady who was never for turning goes to rest as grateful friends and allies around the world mourn her passing and pray for her loved ones.

Those were the days?

As the Americans praise Lady Thatcher’s close relationship with Reagan, Europeans are lauding her role in the EU.

After Barroso stressed her support for the expansion of the union, Martin Schulz, president of the European Parliament, said she was a “committed European” – at least at the beginning of her premiership.

“Margaret Thatcher marked British and European political life. Despite our clear political differences, Margaret Thatcher is a figure of historic significance.

“Margaret Thatcher at the beginning of her tenure was a committed European, signing and pushing for the single European act which transformed the EU single market.

“No matter whether one agrees with her policies or not, Margaret Thatcher showed that politics still has the capacity to be a force for change.”

The public policy blog of the American Enterprise Institute looks at how Thatcher turned around Britain in one chart.

Hugh Carnegy, the FT’s man in Paris, sent this:

While waiting for an official statement from President François Hollande, AFP, the French news agency, gave a flavour of how Margaret Thatcher was viewed in France in the following dispatch:

“Arch-conservative, ultra-liberal, viscerally anti-socialist-communist, hyper-eurosceptic, anti-feminist and mega-controverisal: “Mrs T”, legendary giant of the end of the 20th century, never did anything by half-measure.

I am for consensus, especially on my conditions,’ joked the champion of a revolution which transformed but also profoundly divided Great Britain.”

Watch FT editor Lionel Barber on how Thatcher transformed Britain and what sort of legacy she leaves in this FT video.

After Tony Blair, comes Gordon Brown. The other former Labour prime minister offered some personal memories of Thatcher:

“She will be remembered not only for being Britain’s first female Prime Minister and holding the office for 11 years, but also for the determination and resilience with which she carried out all her duties throughout her public life. Even those who disagreed with her never doubted the strength of her convictions and her unwavering belief in Britain’s destiny in the world.

During our time in Number 10, Sarah and I invited Lady Thatcher to revisit Downing Street and Chequers – something which we know she enjoyed very much. But it was sad for her and her family that she lost her devoted husband Denis almost 10 years ago and that she was unable to enjoy good health in the later years of her retirement.”

Poland’s former president Lech Walesa was emotional as he paid tribute:

She was a great person. She did a great deal for the world, along with Ronald Reagan, Pope John Paul II and Solidarity, she contributed to the demise of communism in Poland and Central Europe.

President Obama mourned Lady Thatcher, praising her as a role model for young women, her strength during the Cold War and her friendship with Reagan.

“With the passing of Baroness Margaret Thatcher, the world has lost one of the great champions of freedom and liberty, and America has lost a true friend. As a grocer’s daughter who rose to become Britain’s first female prime minister, she stands as an example to our daughters that there is no glass ceiling that can’t be shattered. As prime minister, she helped restore the confidence and pride that has always been the hallmark of Britain at its best. And as an unapologetic supporter of our transatlantic alliance, she knew that with strength and resolve we could win the Cold War and extend freedom’s promise.

“Here in America, many of us will never forget her standing shoulder to shoulder with President Reagan, reminding the world that we are not simply carried along by the currents of history—we can shape them with moral conviction, unyielding courage and iron will. Michelle and I send our thoughts to the Thatcher family and all the British people as we carry on the work to which she dedicated her life—free peoples standing together, determined to write our own destiny.”

Tony Blair’s ex-spokesman Alistair Campbell tweets:

Twitter users think the popstar Cher has died because of confusion on Twitter over the hashtags: #NowThatchersDead with #NowThatChersDead.

For a full account of the Iron Lady’s legacy, read the FT’s obituary by Sue Cameron and Joe Rogaly.

It starts with a quote from Charles Powell, one of her closest aides:

“She changed us all. We went from being a people who saw ourselves as eternally on the downward slide to a nation that was proud to be British again. On the world stage too, she made Britain count once more.”

You can also explore her life through our interactive timeline.

And read some of her famous quotes.

Tweets of praise from British Conservative politicians: chancellor George Osborne, foreign secretary William Hague and mayor of London Boris Johnson.

The FT’s Hugh Carnegy sends us this missive from Paris.

In a gracious but carefully measured statement from François Hollande, France’s socialist president, saluted Mrs Thatcher as a “great personality” while acknowledging that her relations with Paris were “always frank and honest”.

For most of her period as prime minister, France was ruled by François Mitterrand, Mr Hollande’s mentor, a socialist who came to power espousing policies at direct odds with hers: she championed privatisation; he nationalisation.

There were tensions during the Falklands War in 1982 as Argentina’s forces were equipped with deadly French Exocet missiles – but Paris taught the UK how to sabotage them.

The two leaders also shared an instinctive concern about German re-unification when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989. “She forged a constructive and fruitful dialogue with François Mitterrand. Together they worked to reinforce the links between our countries,” Mr Hollande said, noting that Mrs Thatcher had given a “decisive push” to building of the channel tunnel.

Lord Saatchi, Chairman of the Centre for Policy Studies said everyone wants to be immortal:

Few are. Mrs Thatcher is. Why? Because her values are timeless, eternal. Tap anyone on the shoulder anywhere in the world, and ask what Mrs Thatcher “believed in”, and they will tell you. They can give a clear answer to what she “stood for”.

She developed all the winning arguments of our time – free markets, low tax, a small state, independence, individuality, self-determination. The result was a revolution in economic policy and three election victories in a row.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, the leader of the Anglican church, said he heard the news of Thatcher’s death with sadness.

“My prayers are with her son and daughter, her grandchildren, family and friends. It is right that today we give thanks for a life devoted to public service, acknowledging also the faith that inspired and sustained her.”

Australia’s first female prime Julia Gillard has issued a statement during a visit to Beijing:

Her service as the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom was a history-making achievement.

Her strength of conviction was recognised by her closest supporters and her strongest opponents. I extend my sincere condolences and those of my fellow Australians to her family and friends.

Andrew England, the FT’s South Africa correspondent, sends us this rather ambivalent message from the governing party the African National Congress.

“Her passing signal the end of a generation of leaders that ruled during a very difficult period characterized by the dynamics of the cold war. Her tenure as Prime Minister redefined British politics and public administration and these impacted greatly on the European politics and governance.

“The ANC was on the receiving end of her policy in terms of refusing to recognize the ANC as the representatives of South Africans and her failure to isolate apartheid after it had been described as a crime against humanity, however we acknowledge that she was one of the strong leaders in Britain and Europe to an extent that some of her policies dominate discourse in the public service structures of the world. Long after her passing on, her impact will still be felt and >her views a subject of discussion.”

Nick Clegg, the UK’s deputy prime minister and leader of the Liberal Democrats, issued his statement earlier.

“Margaret Thatcher was one of the defining figures in modern British politics. Whatever side of the political debate you stand on, no one can deny that as Prime Minister she left a unique and lasting imprint on the country she served.

“She may have divided opinion during her time in politics but everyone will be united today in acknowledging the strength of her personality and the radicalism of her politics.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Thatcher was an “extraordinary leader” who played a pivotal role in overcoming Europe’s Cold War division.

“She was an extraordinary leader in global politics of her time. I will never forget her part in surmounting the division of Europe and at the end of the Cold War.”

Honesty from Virgin boss Richard Branson:

Hollywood star Meryl Streep who played Thatcher in the film, “Iron Lady” last year said she was a figure of “awe for her personal strength and grit.’

“Margaret Thatcher was a pioneer, willingly or unwillingly, for the role of women in politics…”

More reaction from Ireland:

John Hume, former leader of the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour party.

“There is no doubt that her actions caused great hurt and harm. As a result she remained an extremely divisive figure and we clashed politically on many occasions over our differing views on how to achieve a peaceful solution to the situation in the north.

However, with the help of American influence, she had the strength to withstand unionist intransigence and sign up to the Anglo Irish Agreement. This was a significant move and a key foundation stone in the beginning of our peace process which culminated in the signing of the Good Friday Agreement 15 years ago tomorrow.

While Ian Paisley Snr, the former leader of the Democratic Unionist party, said Ireland had become much the poorer for the passing of Baroness Thatcher.

In every phase of life she was great – great as a woman, great as a wife, great as a mother, great as a political candidate, great as a member of Parliament, especially as the first woman prime minister, great as a winner of the war, and great as a member of the House of Lords.

I had many meetings with her when I put Ulster’s case before her and condemned some of her actions in relation to this province.

Nevertheless, through good report and ill report, she listened to the views of the unionist people, and respected them.

Today we salute her as a truly great leader and offer our sympathy to her son and daughter.

Israel President Shimon Peres said Thatcher was “a true friend of Israel and a personal friend of mine.”

From the Buenos Aires Herald: Malvinas islanders express ‘great sadness’ after Thatcher’s death

The Malvinas government received the news of the death of Baroness Margaret Thatcher this morning, “with great sadness” and flags were flying at half mast in the Islands.

Member of Legislative Assembly Mike Summers said on behalf of the Islands’ Government: “It is with great sadness that we received news of the death of Baroness Thatcher this morning. She will be forever remembered in the Islands for her decisiveness in sending a task force to liberate our home following the Argentine invasion in 1982. Our sincere gratitude was demonstrated in 1983 when she was granted the Freedom of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Her friendship and support will be sorely missed, and we will always be thankful for all that she did for us. The thoughts and deepest sympathies of all Falkland (Malvinas) Islanders are with her family and friends at this sad time.”

The FT’s Hugh Carnegy also draws attention to a statement from France’s far right National Front. They salute “the memory of a leader of profound conviction about the sovereignty of her country and a resolute adversary of a federal Europe”.

British Home Secretary Theresa May called Thatcher one of the “giants” of the 20th century:

“As the first woman to reach that office, she remains an inspiration to millions of women of all political persuasions. Her considerable legacy continues to shape British politics to this day.”

A half pint of milk has been left on Thatcher’s doorstep – a reference to her nickname “Margaret Thatcher Milk Snatcher” when she was Eductaion Secretary in 1971 and stopped milk for children over seven.

Lord Baker, who served in Thatcher’s cabinet, has penned a comment piece for the FT “Margaret Thatcher created the space for Britons to walk tall.” He argues her greatest legacy may have been Tony Blair, the New Labour prime minister, and the death of socialism in Britain.

Hugh Carney reports from Paris that Jean-Marc Ayrault, the prime minister, is being less diplomatic than President François Hollande.

“While acknowledging Mrs Thatcher as a “great patriot”, he said: “It was another era, an era we call the Thatcher years – the Reagan years – which certainly caused economic and social damage, excessive liberalisation, the questioning of public services. We still see the consequences.”

Still radio silence from Argentina President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner but La Nación, the country’s leading conservative newspaper, has banned readers from posting comments on the page “due to the sensitivity of the subject matter”.

Germany’s ex-chancellor Helmut Kohl has lauded Thatcher’s honesty:

I greatly valued Margaret Thatcher for her love of freedom, her incomparable openness, honesty and straightforwardness.

The BBC is reporting that Lady Thatcher died at London’s Ritz hotel, where she was staying.

A wikileaks cable from 1975 captures Thatcher’s stunning rise to power.

Flowers and photographers outside Thatcher’s home in London, on the FT’s photo diary.

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said on his Facebook account that he admired Thatcher’s temper:

“Margaret Thatcher was an outstanding politician, who did a lot for her country. One can have different attitudes on her political views but it is impossible to not respect her for her temper and political will.”

The Washington Post has been taking a good look at Thatcher’s economic record which contains some great charts.

World leaders, former statesman and One Direction’s Harry Styles?

The floppy haired teen icon seems to be introducing a whole new generation to Thatcher’s legacy. It has 25,000 retweets and counting.

Meanwhile Sarah Palin, former Republican candidate for Vice President, said Thatcher taught lessons that will live on forever:

And comments on Thatcher’s fashion can be found in the women’s supplement of Italy’s La Repubblica which talks about how the Iron Lady hated image consultants and rejected their advice.

Here’s former US president Bill Clinton’s tribute:

I was saddened to learn of the death of Lady Margaret Thatcher. The United Kingdom has lost its first woman Prime Minister, an iconic stateswoman, and a fearless leader. The United States has lost one of its dearest friends and most valued allies.

Lady Thatcher understood that the special relationship which has long united our two nations is an indispensable foundation for peace and prosperity. Our strong partnership today is part of her legacy. Like so many others, I respected the conviction and self-determination she displayed throughout her remarkable life as she broke barriers, defied expectations, and led her country. Hillary, Chelsea, and I extend our condolences to her family and to the people of the United Kingdom.

As the FT’s Kiran Stacey reported earlier, Thatcher will have a “ceremonial funeral” like the Queen Mother and Lady Diana, not the state funeral that some Tory MPs have called for.

Lord Bell, Thatcher’s spokeperson, has now explained that she did not want a state funeral and thought a fly-past would be a “waste of money”. She thought lying in state would not be appropriate, he said.

Public spending under Thatcher from the Institute of Fiscal Studies:

Parliament will be called back from recess later this week to allow MPs to pay
their tributes to Thatcher, the FT’s Kiran Stacey reports.

The Conservative Home Blog has compared public finances under Margaret Thatcher and under the Coalition which is interesting reading.

Nancy Reagan has said Thatcher and her husband former US President Ronald were “political soul mates”, CNN reports.

“It is well known that my husband and Lady Thatcher enjoyed a very special relationship as leaders of their respective countries during one of the most difficult and pivotal periods in modern history. Ronnie and Margaret were political soul mates, committed to freedom and resolved to end Communism.

“As Prime Minister, Margaret had the clear vision and strong determination to stand up for her beliefs at a time when so many were afraid to “rock the boat.” As a result, she helped to bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union and the liberation of millions of people.

Former deputy chairman of the Conservative Party Lord Ashcroft has been walking down memory lane.

I have one abiding memory of Margaret that I will take with me to my grave. Shortly before she resigned as Prime Minister in November 1990, I had to meet Denis to discuss some business affairs.

Because he was particularly busy, he asked me to pop round to see him at 10 Downing Street. We were sitting in the Thatchers’ lounge going through some papers when Margaret walked into the room.

I immediately got up to greet her but she just said: “Sit down, sit down. Would you boys like a cup of tea?” It was a strange feeling sitting there while the Prime Minister of the day disappeared into the kitchen, boiled the kettle and poured us tea in silence so as not to disturb our meeting.

Even today, I sometimes try to imagine how Britain would be without Margaret’s resolve and leadership. She undoubtedly deserves to go down in history as Britain’s greatest peacetime Prime Minister. It took someone with astonishing willpower and principle to change the course of history, and Margaret Thatcher was that person.

This is what total spending in the UK between 1950 and 2011 looked like:

US Secretary of State John Kerry said he and his wife Teresa were joining millions around the world in mourning the loss of Thatcher:

The United States has lost a dear friend, and the world has lost a transformative leader who broke the glass ceiling in global politics. With her characteristic determination, she defined grit on the world stage and grace in the face of advancing age and illness.

Lady Thatcher took the helm of government amid tumultuous times. She would face wars abroad, terrorism at home, and deep uncertainty about the United Kingdom’s future. She met all these challenges and many others with unyielding drive and courage.

Former US Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice:

There was no more potent force in the defense of freedom than this remarkable woman.

The Thatcher years, in inflation, GDP and unemployment:

As tributes continue to pour in from around the world, we’re closing the live blog but stay with for the latest news and analysis.